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as first published at London in 1684

The Planter’s Speech to his Neighbours & Country-Men of Pennsylvania, East & West-Jersey, and to All Such as Have Transported Themselves into New-Colonies for the Sake of a Quiet Retired Life. To which Is Added, the Complaints of our Supra-Inferior-Inhabitants.

by  Thomas Tryon

My dear Friends & Country-men;

Though it may seem very Impertinent and Unnecessary to go about to repeat to you the Occasions and Motives that inclined you to abandon the Land of your Nativity, and those comfortable outward Imployments and Accommodations which most of you had there, and to adventure your selves to the Hazards of a long Voyage at Sea, to come to this Remote part of the World; yet lest you should forget those Inducements, as often it happens, that men by a slothful Negligence or Ignorance, after some Tract of Time, fall from their first Love, and blindly hurrey themselves into the very same Mischiefs which they intended to avoid, and build up again what they justly endeavoured to destroy, not foreseeing the future ill Conveniences of their present (supposed Innocent) Actings; I shall take leave briefly to mention some few of those weighty Causes which I am confident originally sway’d your Spirits to this Transplantation, and those good Ends, for the obtaining of which you chiefly removed hither.

The Motives of our Retreating to these New Habitations, I apprehend (measuring your Sentiments by my own) to have been,

1st. The desires of a Peaceable Life, where we might Worship God and Obey his Law with freedom, according to the Dictates of the divine Principle, unincumbred with the Mouldy Errors and Fierce Invasions of Tradition, Politick Craft, Covetous or Ambitious Cruelty, &c.

2dly. That we might here, as on a Virgin Elysian Shore, commence or improve such an Innocent course of Life, as might unload us of those other outward Cares, Vexations and Turmoils, which before we were always subject unto from the hands of Self-designing and Unreasonable Men.

3dly. That as Lot, by flying to little Zoar, from the Ungodly Company of a more Populous Magnificent Dwelling, we might avoid both being grieved with the sight and Infections, as well as odious Examples of Horrid Swearings, Cursings, Drunkenness, Gluttony, Uncleanness, and all kinds of Debauchery continually committed with greediness; and also escape the Judgments threatned to every Land polluted with such Abominations.

4thly. That as Trees are transplanted from one Soyl to another, to render them more Thriving and better Bearers, so we here in Peace and secure Retirement under the bountiful Protection of God, and in the Lap of the least adulterated Nature, might every one the better improve his Talent, and bring forth more plentious Fruits to the Glory of God, and publick Well-fare of the whole Creation.

5thly. And Lastly, That in order hereunto, by our Holy Doctrine, and the Practical Teachings of our Exemplary Abstemious Lives, transacted in all Humility, Sobriety, Plainness, Self-denial, Virtue and Honesty, we might gain upon those Thousands of poor dark Souls scattered round about us, (and commonly, in way of Contempt and Reproach call’d, Heathens) and bring them not only to a state of Civility, but real Piety; which effected, would turn to a more satisfying Account, than if with the proud Spaniards, we had gain’d the Mines of Potosi, and might make the Ambitious Hero’s, whom the World admires, blush for their petty and shameful Victories, which only tend to make their Fellow-Creatures Slaves to those that are already the Devil’s Vassals: Whereas hereby we might release Millions from the Chains of Satan, and not only teach them their Rights as Men, and their Happiness when Christians, but bring them from the Power of Darkness, into the Marvellous Light and the Glorious Liberty of the Sons of the most High.

These Thoughts, these Designs, My Friends, were those that brought you hither; and so far only as you pursue and accomplish them, you obtain the end of your Journey. If these be neglected, tho’ your Ports and Rivers were full of Trading Ships, your Land never so Populous, and loaden with the most vendable Commodities, yet I would be bold to say, That your Plantation were in a most unthriving Condition; that like men in a Feaver, tumbling from one side of the Bed to the other, you have shifted your Dwelling, but not recovered your Health, nor are one Inch the nearer your proposed Happiness in America, than in Europe; and have travelled some Thousands of Miles to as little purpose as the Jesuites into Japan and China, or foolish Pilgrims in their tedious vain Journeys to Compostella, Loretto, or Jerusalem.

Our business therefore here in this New Land is not so much to build Houses, and establish Factories, and promote Trades and Manufactories, that may enrich our selves, (though all these things in their due place are not to be neglected) as to erect Temples of Holiness and Righteousness, which God may delight in; to lay such lasting Frames and Foundations of Temperance and Virtue as may support the Superstructures of our future Happiness, both in this and the other World.

In order to these Great and Glorious Ends, it will well become, nay, is the Indispensible Duty of all that are Superiours amongst us, to make Laws and imitate Customs that may tend to Innocency and an Harmless Life, so as to avoid and prevent all Oppression and Violence either to Men or Beasts; by which we shall strengthen the Principle of Well-doing, and qualifie the Fierce, Bitter, Envious, Wrathful Spirit, which (as ’tis said of Fire and Water in their Extreams) is a good Servant, but a bad Master.

Be pleased therefore to give me leave, (or whether you are pleased, and will give leave, or no, I must, because ’tis my Duty, take it) to nominate some Particulars, which in my Opinion will be convenient for us to observe, and may be as so many Pillars to sustain our New-Building, and prevent those Deluges of Evil, that otherwise will in time unavoidably break in upon us.

I. Since Temperance is the firmest Establishment of a People, and most fits them for all the Duties of a Civil and Religious Life; since Strong and Heady Drinks are no way necessary to Humane Life, but rather their at first (perhaps) innocent and moderate use, is most apt to degenerate into Excess, and the Example of those that use them most sparingly, tends to encourage others to partake therein, who have not so much discretion as to use them properly, (which indeed should be only in certain cases, as Physick) as is apparent in our Neighbouring Indians, whose Well-fare we ought, in Christian Charity, to tender as much as our own, and not lay Stumbling-blocks before them, whereby both our Holy Religion becomes scandaliz’d, as well as our future Temporal Safety endangered. I would humbly, and I hope may justly, piously and prudentially Advise, That we should either wholly prohibit, or lay very large Impositions on all sorts of Brandy, Rum, distill’d Spirits and Wine, so as to render the common use of them impracticable.

For much better it is, that the Merchants that deal only therein, and the Distillors should lose their Trade, and the Vines for that use be neglected, than that We, and our Posterity and Neighbours should by such a Temptation perish, and commit all kind of Outrages and Uncleanness in the use of them: For what if all such amongst us, either Young or Old, Rich or Poor, that are found to drink of them (unless in case of Sickness, and prescribed as Physick) were punished with Servitude for a certain time, and the Offence not to be bought off with Money; What would the Publick, or any sober Person be the worse for this? Hath not woful Experience taught us the evil Consequences of drinking such Liquors in our own Native Country? Are not such Practises the Leading Cards to all Vitiousness? They precipitate Young Men into all kinds of Fury, Madness and Folly; and besides weakening the already exhausted Natural Heat of the more Antient, they render Gray Hairs, (which ought to be the Ensigns of Gravity and Wisdom) ridiculous and contemptible; In Women they destroy and corrupt the very Radix of Nature, and intail a great Number of incurable Diseases on Posterity; add to this, that they not only Spend and impaire the outward Substance most unnecessarily, but at the same time drown the Mind, and debilitate all the Intellectual Faculties, and by extravagant Expences render us uncapable to perform those Offices of Charity and Beneficience, which we might otherwise, and ought, render to our poor Neighbours, and the publick benefit of our Country: In a word, these Superfluities and needless things cannot be procured and used without hazard to our Health and Lives, and oppression to the whole Creation, for all such things are dear, and hard to come by; and when they are procured, the use of them proves of more dangerous Consequence than the charge and trouble of getting them, so that when all is done, they only serve to Tickle and please the sensual and depraved Appetite of vain Men, and to force Nature out of her innocent way.

The use of such Superfluities is attended with many other evil Circumstances, as first, it occasions men to let their Farms or Plantations dear, or makes them labour very hard, or put their poor Servants upon Excessive Toil, and put their own, both Body and Mind as it were on the Rack, to procure such things as are necessary, and then not content therewith, they must exchange them away for that which stands them in no stead, viz. To sell their most pleasant and fragrant Fruits, Grains and Seeds at a low and poor Rate, that with the procede thereof they may buy Brandy, Rum, Wine and the like at dear Rates, As to give a Bushel of brave Wheat for half a Gallon of Brandy, or a Gallon of Rumbullion; What comparison is there to be made between a Twelve Penny Wheat Loaf and a Pint of Brandy, Rum or Wine? The first is the real Preserver of Nature, a durable sustantial Food, most grateful to Nature: The last serves only for a moments time to please the sensual Appetite; but its evil Operations and Effects stay behind, heats the Blood, makes the Veins glow with an unnatural Heat, destroys the edge of the Appetite, renders the whole Body uneasie, and fills the Mind with an innumerable Troop of wanton and vain Imaginations, which seldom are raised, but (as ’tis said of evil Spirits in Magick) they do some Signal Mischief, both to the Body and Mind. Or (to take notice by the way of other the like Superfluities) which is most useful and beneficial to humane Nature, one Ounce of Nutmegs, Cloves, Mace, and the like, or 20 or 30 brave New-laid Eggs? (which of all sorts of Food are the compleatest, and being well ordered, afford the best of Nourishment) Or which is indeed most serviceable, a Pound of good Butter or Cheese, or on the other side, a Pound of Sugar, Currants, Raisins, and the like? Indeed these last are excellent Fruits, but they will not grow in our Country, nor under our Elevation; therefore not so proper for our Bodies, every Soil naturally bringing forth, by the merciful Wisdom and Providence of God, such Vegetations as are most agreeable to the Constitutions of the People of that place.

Besides, all forreign Fruits and Commodities are dear, and for the most part serve only to squander away Estates, advance Gluttony and procure Diseases, and the frequent use of them does sow seeds of Oppression, causing mankind to labour for that, which in truth he had much better have been without. Has not this particular evil Inclination unto, & hankering after strong Liquors, and other the like Superfluities, destroy’d the Healths and Estates of many Thousands in these Western Indies, (as they are called) of our Country-men, viz. in Jamaica, Barbadoes and the Leward [i.e., Leeward] Islands, where they have and do make it a common practice to sell their excellent Butter, Eggs, Fruits, and fragrant Herbs, their Hens, Turkies, Ducks, &c. to purchase Rum, Brandy, Wine, and putrified stinking salt Flesh and Fish, which have destroy’d their Healths, emptied their Purses, and rendered them in every respect Unhappy?

Moreover, the Disorders hence arising have put out the Eye of their Understanding, and debauch’d the Natural Faculty of distinguishing between Good and Evil, Wholesom and Harmful, Pleasant and Nauseous, and made them Bruitish, Sottish and Ignorant, even like Swine, to take pleasure in that Mire wherein by Custom they have long wallowed themselves.

In particular, there is a pernicious sort of Drink in great Reputation and Use amongst them, call’d, PUNCH, which with your leave, I shall give you some Account of, as to both its Nature and Operation, to the end we may expell and prevent, even in the bud, the growth of such evil Customs and Habits amongst us. This sort of beloved Liquor is made of Brandy or Rum, Sugar, Water, Lime-Juice, and sometimes Ginger or Nutmegs: Now here are four or five Ingredients, all of as different Natures as Light is from Darkness, and all great Extreams in their kind, except only the Water.

1st. Rum and Brandy are terrible hot, fierce, sulpherous Spirits, void of all the good friendly Balsamick Vertues, and middle Quality, which is the Moderator and Qualifier in each Body, whilst it remains unviolated or entire; but whensoever it shall happen that this benigne Property is wounded or destroyed, either by undue Preparations, or other Accidents, then that thing becomes either of a fierce raging domineering wrathful Operation, or else of a stinking rank Nature, according to the Nature Original in each thing, as is plain in all Balsamick Liquors; As Canary for Example, when once this aimable Quality is destroy’d by the common way of Distillation, then it becomes fierce, raging and unnatural; and when the same is perisht in Flesh, Herbs or Fruits, they become putrified, rank and stinking; therefore in all sorts of Foods and Drinks there ought to be great care and diligence used, not to destroy this friendly Quality or middle Nature, which is in every thing the Uniter and Preserver (as it were) of Soul and Body, it being that which gives the most fragrant Smell and pleasant Taste to all Drinks and Foods, and is the true Life, Light and Splendor of every thing in the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms. And in what thing soever, be it Animal or Vegetable, this friendly Quality is either naturally impotent, or impaired by pernicious Art, or other Causalty, thenceforwards that thing is neither good for Food nor Drink, except the Venoms of the Martial and Saturnine Properties (which then are altogether predominant) be first corrected; for if it be in Animals, then such Beasts are fierce, cruel, ravenous and unclean; If in Minerals, they are high Poysons; if in Herbs or Fruits, they are rank and fulsom, and also in some degree Poysonous; and all this by their natural Constitution and Quality: And the very same is to be understood when the Essential Virtues of things in themselves, most wholsome and pleasant, come to be hurt or destroy’d; which being done in the Preparation of Rum, Brandy, and all such sulpherous Spirits, ’tis evident how destructive the use thereof must be to Nature.

2dly. Limes are an immature Fruit, wherein the Martial and Saturnine Poysons are so powerful that the Sun and Elements have not had power to awaken the Balsamick Vertues, or bring the Properties of Nature into an equal Operation, as it hath in other Fruit. The Juice of Limes therefore contain two fiery Qualities, viz. a Saturnine churlish Fire, which is of an hard Coagulating Nature in Operation, like the raw cold Saturnine Airs of Winter, which congeals the Water, and hardens all things; 2dly, a sharp keen Martial Property, of a sower harsh fretting Nature and Operation. And though in that Drink called Punch these Extreams are somewhat allay’d or moderated by the friendly Ingredient, viz. Water and Sugar, which do not only render it pleasurable to the Pallate, but also more tollerable to the Stomach. Nevertheless it must be granted that no Extreams can be made altogether Homegeneal by any Artificial Mixtures, or give Nature such ample Satisfaction as those things that are equal in their parts. For the first leave the Stomach and Desire always either Craving and in want, or disordered. For when such improper Compositions of Mature and Immature Fruits and Unwholsom Liquors come into the Body, Nature’s Limbeck, the Stomach, quickly separates them, as sometimes you may perceive after you have eaten or drank such things, by the sower Belches and keen sharp matter the Stomach sends up into the Mouth; as when any shall eat Pyes, Tarts, or other Food made of unripe Fruits, tho’ never so much sweetned to deceive the Pallate, if one make a Meal of them, he shall find those sower distasteful Belchings, and also that they leave his Stomach unsatisfied. The same may also be said even of Ripe Fruits, when too great a number are jumbl’d together of contrary Natures. There are but few that are truly sensible of the many sore Evils and Dissatisfactions improper Mixtures in Diet brings upon the Body and Mind of Man.

But certainly, My Friends and Countrymen, you cannot but be sensible how freely, how bountifully the Creator hath given us all those things that are truly Natural and Necessary to support Life; and are they not familiar, and procured with little Labour and less Hazards, either to the Body or Mind? But on the contrary, are not all these Needless things hard to come by, so that oft-times the Acquest of them tends to the Ruin of the Soul and Body? And yet when all’s done, the enjoyment of them gives neither Satisfaction to the one nor Health to the other, but makes our Wants the greater; for presently we shall want Doctors and Physick to repair those Ruins which our own Intemperances have made; such improper Meats and Drinks being the original Causes of those cruel Belly-Akes and griping Pains in the Bowels, Feavers, Fluxes and Dropsical Diseases, both here and in the West, as also in the East-Indies, where our English inhabit, all according to the Nature of each place, and is other Circumstances of Intemperances shall concur.

But besides Diseases, there are many other Mischiefs that do attend all those places and Countries that accustom to give themselves up to Superfluity, and especially to the drinking of strong Liquors; for they deprave both Superiors and Inferiors, and are the Nurses of perpetual Crimes, Confusions and Disorders on both sides, rendering the first Fierce, Rash, Tyrannical, and unfit for Government; and the latter, Rude, Bold, Surly, Inhumane, and more apt to Contemn [i.e., condemn] all Authority than Obey.

Nor is this Prohibition more fit and requisit in respect of our selves, than in regard of our Neighbours; so that if once we admit the common drinking of such Heady Intoxicating Liquors, we may justly expect the same Inconveniences to befall us as have done New-England. For the Venom of such Liquors, by our fatal Example, will quickly spread it self amongst the Indians, and so instead of making them better, or more humane and tractable, by our Christian Vertues and Abstemious Conversation, we shall make them Tenfold worse, and teach them the grand Sin of Drunkenness, which is the Inlet, Parent and Nurse of the most Monstrous Enormities, as Uncleanness, Murders, &c. For all People who have not the true Knowledge of God, and his divine Principle, and the Understanding of the hidden Natures of things, are terrible greedy and desirous after such fierce wrathful Liquors, as also after Food wherein the Blood is, it being the Original of every Life, which is the forbidden Fruit, that man ought not to have eaten, nor awakened, there being scarce a more evident Token of his depraved state, and that the fierce wrathful Spirit does bear sway and carry the upper Dominion in mens hearts, than their violent Inclinations after Blood, and fierce strong Liquors, which two things have a simile to, and with each other, and the Devilish Nature and Wrath is nourished by the use of them; which is further manifested by all the Savages of the Desert, as the contrary appears in Sheep, and all tame humane and tractable Creatures, which therefore we call Clean Beasts.

II. Another thing, my Friends and Country men, which I desire you to consider, is, the innumerable Evils and cruel Miseries man draws upon himself, and the whole Creation, is the common use of war-like destructive murthering Weapons, and their Appurtenances, viz. Guns, Swords, Powder, Bullets, Shot, Drums, and the like Devilish Instruments; I may properly so call them, for no doubt the invention and use of them all did originally proceed from, and is still fomented by the fierce Wrath; for as they have been always used for Destruction, so indeed they can have no other use, but only to awaken and encourage Wrath and Blood-shed; Therefore let not our Streets (the Temples of Peace, and Tabernacles of Love and Innocence) be encumbred with such mischievous Tools; let not our pure Air be disturbed with their ungrateful Noises, Clashings, Ratlings and Bouncings, nor poluted with the Sulpherous Steams they send forth, as if so many Devils had marcht through the Skey, and left the stench of the Infernal Regions behind them.

Wherefore should we give wild Indians, that do not know the use of these Messengers of Death, such a bad and fatal Example, as to shew a new Method how to kill one another, which no doubt in process of time they will improve so far as to make War upon us, and kill us with our own Weapons, witness the Evils that by this very means have attended our Neighbours, and the like, we or our Posterity may justly expect. Besides, tell me, I pray, what Affinity there is or can be imagined between a Christian, and Guns, Swords, Powder, Shot, Drums, and the frightful noise of Armed Troops marching on to Manslaughter, Desolation and Spoil? does such Imployment of Wrath and Blood, look any thing like the pure, peaceable, meek, innocent Christian-Life, which teaches to do unto all as we would be done unto; and to love not only our Friends and our Neighbours, but also our Enemies; which assures us, that those that use the Sword shall perish by the Sword, that commands us, if we are smote on the Left Cheek, to turn the Right, &c. Can any thing be more Opposite to all this, than swaggering in Buff and Armour, and boasting how many Men we have kill’d in a day?

And though many of you do not use, nor perhaps intend these Martial Instruments for Man-slaughter, but only to kill and destroy other inferiour Creatures, and Inhabitants of the Elements; yet I pray consider, why will you arm your selves, & provide thus to kill those innocent Creatures? Does not bounteous Mother Earth furnish us with all sorts of Food necessary for Life? Wherefore then will you trouble your selves to kill those Creatures who have a Title by Nature’s Charter to their Lives as well as you? Shall not the groaning of those Creatures call for Vengeance? And must not there be a Retaliation? Can you think the Noble Race of Man was made to be a Tyrant over, and a Scourge unto the inferior Inhabitants of the World? No sure, he was to treat and govern them in Love and Friendliness. But instead thereof, he is now become their deadly Enemy. Therefore though you will not fight with, and kill those of your own Species, yet I must be bold to tell you, That these lesser Violences (as you may call them) do proceed from the same Root of Wrath and Bitterness, as the greater do, there being but one grand Fountain from whence all kinds of Evil, Violence, Oppression and Cruelty do proceed, whether it be towards our Brother, Man, or any other of our Fellow-Creatures. And though Custom hath made the killing and oppressing of Beasts, Birds, &c. to be familiar, and consequently easie, and done without any Remorse or Bowels of Pity, yet it is still from the dark Root. ’Tis true, we read in Scripture frequently of the Killing both Men and Beasts; and ’tis true, the Lord did give the Nations liberty to kill and eat the Flesh of Inferior Creatures; But note, That this was not done until Mankind had departed out of his holy Law, and goverment of his divine Principle, into his fierce Wrath, out of which wrathful Principle he permitted the killing and eating of Flesh; so the Scripture saith, The Wickedness of Man had corrupted the Earth, and then the Lord said, My Spirit shall no longer strive with Man, Threescore and ten years shall be the term of his Life, &c. That is, Man would not submit unto and be governed by his holy friendly Principle of Love and Light; therefore the Lord in his fierce Wrath (which man had rather chosen to precipitate himself into) shortned mans Life, and gave him Flesh to eat; which sort of Food had the nearest Affinity to that Wrathful Spirit that had then gotten the Government in Man. But in Paradise, that is, whilst man continued under the sweet Conduct of the divine Principle, his Bill of Fare, allowed by his Creator in love, was only, Every Herb bearing Seed, and every Tree in which is the Fruit of a Tree yielding Seed, to you it shall be for Meat, Gen. 1. 29. Thus far the Children of Israel in the Wilderness, as long as they were Obedient, God provided and fed them with Angels Food, pure and delicious Manna; but when they grew Disobedient, and Murmured, and nothing would serve them but Flesh, God gave them Flesh in his Wrath, and Quails in his Displeasure, which fitted them for Destruction.

Furthermore, though you will not kill those of your own kind, yet your Children seeing and learning these Preparations of Oppression and Violence, they may come to be of different Opinions, and by degrees kill one another with their Fathers Guns and Swords; for we know not what sort of People will come after us, nor what Spirit they may be of: Therefore it will be highly convenient for us to prevent the Growth of all Fierceness, Wrath and Violence, even in the bud, by our Laws and wholsome Customs; for there is no way or means that can or will so powerfully disarm the Rage of Men and other Creatur[e]s, as Clemency and Well-doing. Has not the Lord by his divine Hand of Providence brought us into a pleasant and fruitful Country, that flows (as one may say) with Milk and Honey, that is, all things necessary for sustaining Life and rendering it delightful, as far as Nature desires, or Innocency will admit; why then should we by our Intemperance make it flow with Blood, Oppression and Violence? Will not a little Labour cause the Earth to bring forth a great number of brave fragrant Herbs, Fruits and Grains, which will readily supply us with both dry and moist Nourishment, and preserve our Health and Strength without the use of Guns, Swords, Powder, Shot, or the like Engines and Utensils of War, which have their Original from the fierce Wrath of God in Nature, and let men pretend what they will of Necessity, cannot be used, but only by the same Spirit.

Wherefore should we Christians, whose Laws and the Doctrines of our Saviour engage us to live in love & unity, that we may be rendred capable to understand and enjoy that glorious Liberty of the Sons of God, which the whole Creation groans to be deliver’d into, why, I say, should we with wrathful Weapons, and breathing Death and Destruction, terrifie, amaze and alarm not only one another, but also all the Inhabitants of the four Elements, meerly to gratifie our extravagant Desires and wanton Appetites, or furious Passions, and all the while to suffer the friendly Law and good Principle of Gods eternal Love to languish, sigh and groan under the burthens of those intollerable Evils; in which state Man often finds himself in great Trouble and Discontent, and wonders very much what may be the occasion thereof; not considering the true cause, viz. That their Hearts and Souls do move in the fierce Wrath, and that they do not do unto all as they would be done unto, nor live in Innocency and Concord with all Creatures, which is the true Christian Doctrine. Therefore to prevent all these Troubles, Dangers and Annixities [i.e., anxieties ?], it will become us to be wise and Innocent in our Laws and Customs, that our Youthful Settlements may be a means to preserve us and our Posterity, and then our Childrens Children will bless our Souls, and we shall as naturally attract the sweet Influences of the Coelestials, and also the benevolent Aspects of all Creatu[r]es, as the Load-stone doth Iron; for every Like draws to its self its Likeness; for therein consists its highest Joy.

III. A Third thing I would offer to your Consideration, is, That you will not suffer it to become a Custom, or to be lawful for any amongst you to wear any sort of Garments or Clothing, save only such, both Woolen and Linnen, as our own Country does or may produce; nor of any other Colours, but such as the Woods, Seeds, Earths and Minerals of our own Land affords; By which we shall encourage, not only all Ingenious People, but also our own Commodities, and altogether discourage Forreigners. Also, let it be a Custom amongst us for all our Superiors or Magistrates to wear White Garments made of Wool, which is not only more serviceable, but natural, whereby they will be good Examples to the lower sort, who in such things always take their measures from those above them. Besides, such Clothings are easier procured, and Custom has stronger Chains to hold the Multitude than the most severest Laws; And why should Christians so much desire those Martial and Saturnine Colours? whereas White is truly natural, the emblem of Innocence and Temperance, which God and Nature gives us without labour or trouble, it being convenient for us who have in some degree seperated our selves from the Vanities of this World to chuse all such things as have the nearest Affinity to Simplicity, as well in Cloathing, as in Meats, Drinks and Exercises, by which we shall not only free our selves from unnecessary Bonds, needless Changes, vain Fashions, burthensome Inconveniences we have many Years laboured under, but also teach our Posterity this important Truth, That the fewer things we need, the Happier we are, and the more quiet we shall lead our Lives; Superfluity and Extravagant Desires being the Mother of all Need, Labour, Pain, Trouble and Diseases.

IV. We ought by all means to discountenance all Babylonical Letter-learned Physitians, both for the Soul or Body; and on the contrary to direct [a]nd teach every one to hearken unto their own Genius and the Voice of Wisdom in themselves, which being minded, will teach every one the right Cure far better than their Mercinary Prescriptions. It will be also very convenient that our Superiors should accustom themselves to an higher degree of Temperance and Self-Denial, which will have greater Influence on the meaner sort; and let them be diligent in Labour and Industry; By which wholsom Laws and Customs it will become a shame either to be idle, or addicted to Superfluities; Therefore let their Meats, Drinks[,] Exercises and Clothing be according to their Age, and the necessities of Nature, and no more; whereby the young and simple Ones will be kept from despising the Children of the Poor, and the Poor from admiring and envying the Rich; which will put a perpetual stop to the Carrier of Pride and Covetousness, since then all will enjoy the Goods of the Creatures, as it were, in equal Portions. Wherefore then should any strive, and sweat, and bustle so furiously to arrive at great Riches, seeing that as they cannot be procured without such great Care, Labour, Violence, Oppression, not only to a mans own Body and Soul, but also to the whole Creation; so the Enjoyment of them contributes nothing to our real Happiness, but rather leads us into more Snares and Dangers than the Hazards and Turmoils of getting them did.

The chief end men seem now to propose to themselves in the Acquisition of vast Riches, is, That they may eat of the best Lambs, Fowls, Fishes, &c. and drink Wine and strong Drink to Superfluity, and to live in Idleness, and be clothed with soft and costly Rayment; That they may be admired by the Multitude, and dwell in sumptuous Houses, cramb’d with Rich and glittering Furniture, and such like Vanities; All which puff up the Rich with a swelling Conceit of their own Worth, and causeth them in most Nations to despise, and count the Poor but as Dogs in comparison of themselves: And on the other side, makes the Poor secretly Hate and Curse the Rich; And hence usually proceed Tumults, Insurrections, and most of the publick Miseries and Desolations which happen amongst the Sons of Men: And what can be more fit and prudential, more neccessary for the publick Repose, as well as the Happiness and Content of all Individuals, than that we should not only by our Laws, but also in our Examples and Customs, cut off these Roots of so many Evils, by grubbing up all Temptations to such Superfluity and Intemperance, and by so well cultivating our Plantation, as to remove all the Matter whence these Mischiefs are generated. And then we and our Children shall be free from those Disquietudes which chiefly render mans Life uncomfortable; free from wasting Laborious Days and Restless Nights in a greedy pursuit after Noxious Vanities, and half killing our selves with cruel Carking Cares & Excessive Drudgeries; free from Sharking Policies, Unmanly Frauds and Lewd Endeavours to supplant or circumvent our Neighbours; all which proceed for the most part from an insatiate Desire, either to gratifie a Luxurious Paunch or please a vain glorious Itch, which will never be contented; but makes it enjoyment of the greatest Abundance, only a Step to Mount it self towards the grasping at some, yet higher Extravagancies; and if it could become Master of all the Novelties the four Worlds afford, would yet with childish Alexander be ready to sit down and cry for more Baubles and New Play-Things.

V. Let it be a Law and Custom amongst us, not only to abandon the use of all Weapons of War, but also to avoid all Attempts and Beginnings of Violence, as not to suffer any to use Cruelty unto, or to Hurrey and Oppress any of the Inferiour Creatures. This may seem a small and light thing, but really the Consequences of it are very great; for this will disarm the Rage of our Young People, and give their greener Years a settled Tincture or Habit of Love, Compassion and Concord. Have you not often seen in our own Country, little Children, almost as soon as they are able to take op a Stone or any other Weapon into their Hands, fling it at some Bird, or other innocent Creature, and to take delight in hanging, drowning or tormenting young Cats or Dogs, or any thing else that they can master; which evil Inclinations to Violence proceed partly from their Birth, as being begot from Wrathful Essences, and the like bad Qualities predominating in their Parents, and partly from Imitation; for the daily Practice and Examples they behold of Cruelty and Violence offered to all Creatures by their Fathers, stirs them up to do the like as far as their Power will reach to do Mischief. For this cause most Boys whilst they are in tender years do delight in Drums[,] Swords, and all Weapons of Violence, because they see their Fathers and the Elder sort of their Sex do the same. But on the contrary, Female Children delight themselves in sewing of Linnen, Needle-work, playing with Babies, making of Banquets, imitating Christenings, (as they call them) and the like, in Imitation of their Mothers, whom they see much concerned in such Affairs. Since therefore whatsoever you do, your Youth will certainly endeavour to imitate; and for that there is as well a Possibility of awakening, strengthening and encouraging Innocence, Compassion, Patience, Concord, good Will and harmless Inclinations in all Youth, by the Practise and Custom of Well-doing, as there is of breeding and encouraging Wrath and Violence by evil Practices and Conversations: Therefore it will be good to season your Children’s first Years with Customs tending to Virtue and Innocence; in order to which, nothing will be more Prevalent than good Examples.

VI. Let it not be lawful for any amongst us to use Scoffing, Jesting or Idle Discourses, but let our Conversation always relish of Wisdom, humane or divine, and help to instruct each other in the true knowledge of God, Nature, and our selves; and let Tale-bearers (the Fire-brands of Society, and Nurses of Strife and Dissention) be punished with Servitude; nor let Riches, chance of Birth, gay Clothes, nor any other thing be counted Honourable amongst us, but only the true knowledge of God, Nature, and our selves, and acting pursuant thereunto.

VII. Let us resolve to relinquish that mischievous Custom of Marrying for Wealth; & therefore let it be prohibited for any to give Portions or Dowries with his Daughters; by this we shall discourage the Spirit of Covetousness and Idleness in our Young Men, and prevent their making use of base depraved counterfeit Kindnesses, which are but meer Complements, to bring their greedy Desires to pass: Nor ought the diseased and deformed, who are not fit for Generation, or to answer the end for which Marriage was instituted, be desirous to press into that state: Also, all unequal Matches, as Young with the Old, and Old with the Young (which commonly proceed from Lust in one of the Parties, and Covetousness in the other) ought to be discouraged, and all such unnatural Marriages branded with a Note of Infamy, and those Persons to be accounted most miserable who commit such Intemperances.

[VIII. (misnumbered IX.)]. For the preventing of Theft, let it be ordained, that if any Person steal, he shall make four-fold satisfaction to the party injur’d, either by Money or Servitude. And if any wilfully commit Man-slaughter, then let such perish by the same Sword or Weapon. And let all the Fellons that give themselves to stealing be compelled, during all their time of Servitude to wear a different Garment from others during their whole Lives, that all may know what they have done. And to hinder such bad Practices in the Root, let none be exempted from Working, but only Magistrates and Tutors.

[IX. (misnumbered X.)] It ought to be considered, understood and taught amongst us, That the fragrant Herbs, Fruits and Grains were not only ordained by the Lord for Food in the beginning, but also that the same are still much to be preferred for their natural Excellency, before and above the Stock and Radix thereof. For is not the Corn to be preferred before the Stalk it grows on for food? And are not all sorts of Fruits far more acceptable than the Trees whence they proceed? The very same is to be understood of all Animals; Is not the Milk, of Cows and Sheep more pleasant to behold, and better Food, being varied by the House-wives Art, than the Blood and Flesh of such Cattel? There being as great a difference between the one and the other as there is between Fire and Light; the Fire being of a consuming fierce Nature, but the Light thereof is of a most delightful amiable Principle or Quality, and yet if there were no Fire there could be no Light, the Fire being the Radix of all Light and Loveliness. Every particular Creature and Fruit, be it ever so mean and simple, is an Image of, and does contain the true Nature and Property of the whole. The Fruits and Grains of all Vegetables, as also the Fruits of Animals, send forth a pleasant Odour, and are delightful to the Sight and Pallate, easie of Concoction, affording Nourishment of a clean firm substance; but the Stock or Stalk, which is the Father of the Fruit, is of an astringent harsh sower bitter Taste, and an unpleasant Smell, not fit for Food; even so it is in Animals. For this cause it will be highly convenient for us to put away from us all Intemperance and Superfluity, and to prefer the eating of Fruits, Grains and Seeds, for fear we should be precipitated into the Wrath before we are sensible of it, as many Thousands are; for mens strong Inclinations to Flesh and Blood, and to all Beastiality, do too clearly manifest that they live in the Power and Operation of the fierce Wrath and savage Nature of the wild Beasts of the Desert.

[X. (misnumbered XI.)] The usual time of our Labour need not exceed Six Hours in a natural day; for if every one performs that duely according to the Obligation which the Lord hath laid upon men in general, without exception, & content themselves with innocent Fruits, Grains and Seeds, and observe the Rules of Moderation and Temperance, you may assure your selves, that six hours Labour in a day will plentifully supply us with all things necessary for Life, Health or Pleasure; Not that the rest of our time should be spent in Idleness, much less wasted in vain Gaming or Riot, but imployed in meditating on the Works of God and Nature, innocent and useful Conference, reading profitable Books, refreshing our Spirits with the sweet Airs of Musick, practising curious and beneficial Arts, as Planting, Inoculating, Grafting, studying the Science of Numbers, the Use of the Globes, the Theory of Navigation, and all the parts of the Mathematicks, for those whose Genius leads them thereunto; Others to gain skill by Experience in the Knowledge of Herbs, Plants, and other Vegetations, to distinguish them by their Names, Shape and Virtues, take notice of their Agreement with, or Antipathy to each other; and particularly to observe the Signature of each; for on every thing God has engraven certain Mystick real Characters, fully expressing its true Nature and Vertues to such as can obtain the skill to read that Essential Alphabet; also reading of true and select Histories, wherein by taking notice of the Revolutions, Confusions, Slaughters and Miseries men in all Ages have brought upon themselves, by their Lusts and Pride, we may both learn to detest their Ways which lead to those Confusions, and be excited to a greater gratitude to God for his Mercies to us, in planting us under more happy Circumstances.

[XI. (misnumbered XII.)] Let Sugar, Spanish Fruits, and all sorts of Spices be sold only at one place in a Town, and be used wholly in Medicines, and not to mix with any sort of common Food or Drink; for they are not only Superfluous, but prejudicial to Health so to be used. Also, let our times of eating be about Nine in the Morning and Five in the After-noon, for you will find that much more agreeable than a Meal at Mid-day, as commonly in use; for the central Heat or Eye of the World being then in the Meridian, hath great power to awaken the Natural Heat, and also to evaporate it, and therefore at that time, most People, especially in hot Weather, do feel themselves more hot and indisposed than either in the Morning or Afternoon; besides, all that would preserve their Health, ought to fast a proper time between Meals, that so the Stomach and Natural Heat may the better concoct, and make a perfect seperation, whence is generated good Blood, and brisk lively Spirits; besides, a long Mornings-work or exercise, dulls and wastes the pure Spirits, which renders Nature not so capable to digest a full Meal of Meat and Drinks; And let this be a general Rule amongst us, That Nature be alwayes stronger than the Meats and Drinks, and not your Food stronger than Nature; and then you will find your selves after such Meals refrefhed, and not dulled. And by observing these Rules and practising Temperance, you will prevent abundance of Diseases, so that I need speak the less touching Physick; Only shall recommend to your notice and publick use the following Poultice, for the speedy and certa[i]n Cure of Burns, Scalded Limbs, Byles, Fellons, or any the like Sores, viz. Wheat-Flower [i.e., wheat flour], Water and Milk, simpered over the fire till it be thick, and then add some Sugar and make it sweet, & apply this to the part grieved 9 or 10 times a day, the oftner the better, and then anoint it with fresh Butter to keep subtle; for all these Ingredients do cast a friendly Aspect to each other, and are of a Balsamick Nature, and therefore do soon raise up the dismay’d Oyl or wounded Spirits, by meliorating, and asswaging the awakned Poysons in such Hurts. Perhaps some good Housewife will be apt to contradict me, and say, that Bread may do better than Flower: But give me leave to tell her, that Bread has passed through a strong fiery Preparation, which has, as it were, broken the very heart of it; besides, it does more or less retain those sulpherous Vapours it received in the Oven, which are very injurious; also Salt being generally mixed with it, makes it so much the worse, Salt being of a sharp fretting Nature, apt to incorporate with the Venoms in such Sores, and so advance and encrease them.

What is said of Bread is clearly manifested by this, viz. Put what quantity you will of Bread into Water or Milk, and it will not thicken nor become of so strong a substance as it will do with a small quantity of Flower. For this cause Milk and Water thickned with Flower, (provided it be not thicker than Milk-Pottage, and do but just boyl up) is one of the healthiest Foods in the World for all Ages, but especially for Children and Old People; for it does not only administer wholsom Nourishment, but naturally opens the Passage of the Stomach, and powerfully carries the Windy matter downward, and causeth it to break away with ease. This sort of Food is good for all Women, but more particularly those that are troubled with Fumes and Windy Vapours flying into the Head; nor doth it bind the Body, as some ignorantly imagine, though sometimes it does prove beneficial in Looseness and Fluxes, but that does not proceed from its binding Quality, but from its sweet friendly Nature, by moderating those sharp keen Poysons that are by some Intemperance or Accident awakened in the Bowels.

There are several other particulars which might be recommended to your Observation and Use; but if you duely follow these, and continue to walk in the strait Paths of Nature, your Eyes will be daily more and more enlightned, and you will come to see and discern in all things what is good, wholsom, safe, proper and natural, and the contrary, so as to chuse the one and refuse the other.

There only remains now one Objection to what I first proposed touching avoiding the life of Weapons, viz. That if we shall do so, we shall presently become a Prey, and be over-run by Forreigners.

To which I Answer; This Objection is some-what like that of the Jews of old, consulting whether or no they should put to death Innocent Jesus; If we let this Man alone, cry’d they, the Roman will come upon us, and take away our Place and Nation. Whereas on the quite contrary, for their Wickedness in slaying the Lord of Life, God in his just Judgment brought upon them the Romans indeed, who destroy’d them with a Desolation, such as no Age can parallel; so there is just Reason to judge, that the direct contrary to your Apprehensions will happen in this case; for Innocence is a better Bullwark than Force, and will more surely protect you than great Guns and Munition of War. And indeed what Security is there in those things, since there is no Nation, though never so well furnisht with or skill’d in the use of them, but one time or other is subdued and over-run by the greater Violence of others? Whereas your Harmless, Innocent, just Course of Living will disarm the Rage of your Neighbour Princes, for nothing does so powerfully fortifie a Nation or People as Virtue and Well-doing. For all Wars are set on foot either for Covetousness to make themselves Masters of great Treasure and Spoil, or for Ambition and vain Glory, to boast of their Victories, or for Revenge of past Injuries. Now none of all these will have any place in Relation to you. For first, you contenting your selves with what is necessary, will give no temptation to their Covetousness; nor can they derive any Honour by vanquishing those that make no Resistance; nor pretend a Quarrel for Injuries received when you live at Peace with all the Creation: Which last, by a secret, yet powerful Magnetism will again draw all things to a friendliness towards you. Whence come Wars and Fightings, (saith the Apostle) Is it not from your Lusts? Root out the latter, and you will be in no danger from the former: pointer Having once subdued our Inward or Home Enemies there will be no fear of forreign Forces, but all things shall work together for our good. Besides, good and virtuous Examples will work far more upon our Neighbour Indians than Lip-preaching or external Rites of Religious Worship; for the first doth reach to the Root, and touch the inwards of a man, the latter affect only the Eye or Ear; so that nothing can effectually overcome the fierce Wrath, both in man and without him, but only living in the Power and Operation of the pure innocent and friendly Principle of God’s Love, whence all Compassion and Well-doing proceed, that being the true Protector and Defender of our Faith, and in which alone is perfect Peace, wherein we shall find rest to our Souls. But on the other side, Intemperance and Superfluity do enthral Mankind, makes that their Masters which was ordained to be their Servants, and exposes them to continual Dangers, Troubles, Turmoils, Vexations and Miseries.

Thus in true Love to the Wellfare of this our New Plantation, and to you all, My Friends and Country-men, I have laid before you those things which I conceive tend to your Peace, Prosperity and Happiness: And may the good Spirit of Light, Love and Innocence illuminate you to pursue and vigorously endeavour what may conduce to these most Safe, Honourable and Desirable Ends.

C H A P.   V.

The Complaints of the Birds and Fowls of Heaven to their Creator, for the Oppressions and Violences most Nations on the Earth do offer unto them, particularly the People called Christians, lately settled in several Provinces in America.

Though Nature hath formed most of our kind for Harmony, and endued us with Ravishing Notes, and the warbling Airs of Melody, yet we cannot but now for a while forget our pleasant Singing, and in Sorrowful Tones sigh out our just Complaints, from a deep sence of those Oppressions and undeserv’d ill usage under which we groan. ’Tis not the severity of the Season, nor the harshness of the Weather, that so much afflicts us; for to those Inconveniences of the Elements we patiently submit; but ’tis the Treachery and Tyranny that we endure from the hands of Creatures that call themselves Rational, and whom we never injured, but on the contrary have many ways obliged, that enforces us to remonstrate to all the Creation the Injustice of their Dealings and our Sufferings.

Cruel and heard-Hearted [sic] Man! does this Perfidiousness and Tyranny of thine towards us Inferior-graduated, yet Innocent fellow-Creatures, look like thy first Estate? Has not our Creator made and ordained thee his Governour and great Vice-Gerent over all the Inhabitants of the lower Universe, to Rule them with Meekness and Equity? and formed thee his Image, viz. to live in and under tne Government of the divine and friendly Principle of his Love and holy Light, but you have disobeyed the Commands of our Creator, and despised the Voice of Wisdom in your Hearts, and through Cruelty, Violence and Oppression not only to one another, but to all the Host of Heaven, have precipitated your selves into the fierce Wrath of God and Nature, whence have been invented all Guns, Powder, Bullets, and other hellish Engines of Destruction, by which you do not only plague and torment and butcher one another, but all other Innocent Creatures, whom the great Jehovah hath made for his Honour and Glory, and to sing forth his Praise, by whose Power and divine Hand we are sustained; for he bountifully gives us our daily Bread without labour of Body or perturbation of Mind; therefore in our way and according to our nature, we joyfully chaunt forth Hellelujahs to his Name, and rest satisfied with his good pleasure.

But depraved Man will not suffer us in peace or safety to go on with that Imployment for which we were made, but declares himself our Enemy, and causelessly proclaims War against us, and by force and fraud, open Violence and secret Stratagems endeavours, where-ever he can catch or surprize us, to deprive us of that Life which God hath given us.

And we are more especially astonish’t to meet with these usages from those that call themselves Christians, who of late years have found out and settled themselves in the Regions and Countries of America, where before their Arrival we lived in a very great degree of freedom and security. But now by this new Neighbour-hood of those from whose, Profession we might promise our selves nothing but Love and good Will, our Condition is much altered for the worse, our Danger and Destruction is daily encreased, and to kill and murder us is become an Occupation and a Trade, for which purpose these peaceable Christians (as they would be counted) have brought with them all kinds of Snares and Engines of War and Violence, which never had before been seen, nor their frightful hellish Noises heard in our Coasts. Now how absurd is it for those who fly from Violence in one place, to begin it themselves on the Innocent in those places where they take shelter? How much below the dignity of a Man are those cruel and insidious Practices? How forreign from and contrary to the Doctrin of that Christianity which you profess, where ’tis expresly declared, That whoever useth the Sword shall perish by it: That is to say, he that by any kind of Violence doth awaken the Center of Wrath in himself, shall be precipitated into it; and therefore your most holy Prophet, the first born of the Sons of God, and in and by whom the World was made, saith, My Kingdom is not of this World, for then would my Servants fight. That is, My Kingdom, and that state whereunto I bring my Disciples, does not consist in Wrath, Violence or Oppression, but in Peace, Innocency, Love and universal good Will, doing unto all as they would be done unto. And in pursuance of these Injunctions and Instructions from that adorable Prince of Peace, we have been informed, that divers Christians in the Primitive times, at the first arising of the Day-Star of Gods eternal Light and Love, did deny themselves all the violent Sports of Esau and Nimrod, and bore their Testimony against all Oppression and the use of those devilish Engines of Destruction; and many in their own Country will not to this day be seen to practise any violent Exercises, as Hunting, Hawking, Shooting or laying of Snares and Traps to betray the guiltless Inhabitants of the expanded Firmament, but make it a main point of Doctrine to disown Fighting, and use of Arms, and Practices of Violence, as being contrary to the divine Principle; and yet some of the same men coming into our Indian Territories for the sake of a good Conscience, and that they might exercise their Minds and Liberties in peaceable Well-doing, which the Sword of Wrath disquieted and hindered them from enjoying in their own Country, did as lustily provide themselves with hellish Engines of Wrath, Cruelty and Bloodshed, as Guns, Swords, Powder, &c. as if they had been marching into the Fields of Mars, rather than into a Land of Tranquility and Repose.

But tell us, O Men! we pray you tell us what Injuries have we committed to forfeit? What Law have we broken, or what Cause given you, whereby you can pretend a Right to invade and violate our part, and natural Rights, and to assauIt and destroy us, as if we were the Agressors, and no better than Thieves, Robbers and Murtherers, fit to be extirpated out of the Creation? Sure we are, we have not made our selves more Rich than our Neighbours, nor endeavour’d to establish to our selves a Tyranny over them: We have not taken away their Priviledges, nor laid Cities and Countries waste: We are not guilty of Burning of Towns, nor Deflowring of Virgins, nor Ravishing Matrons, nor of Slaying Old Men, or carrying away Captive the Young: We do not gather our selves into Troops to destroy those of our own kind; nor have we at any time Plundered them, or haled them into loathsom Prisons: Nor are we offended with each other, because our Feathers are not all of a length or of the same colour: We eat not to Gluttony, nor drink to Excess and Ebriety, whilst some of our kind are half starved: Others of larger Bodies or higher Fleight, do not squeeze and oppress the Inferiors with hard Labours, whilst themselves surfeit in Riot and Wantonness: We do not rob one another of natural Rayment, nor grow proud with their Ornaments: Our Foods and Drinks are not the price of Blood, nor do they smell of the Violence and Oppression of AEgypt; but our Liquor is pure Water, and our Food is given us by the divine hand of Providence: Our Love to each other is neither partial nor dissembled; nor do we couple for Money, Honour, or any private base Interest.

Consider therefore, O Man! our Innocence, and thine own high Birth, and sully not thy natural Honour with an unjust pursuit to destroy us, but remember, that all the Inventers of those Engines of War and Violence, which thou uses against us, have brought them forth from the Root of Bitterness; and know this, that none can use them but from the Power of the same black Principle. How unworthy the humane Nature, and how unlike Innocency is it, for thee, O Man, that art made but a little lower than the Angels, to hang a great Iron Sword by thy side, a huge Budget of stinking Sulphur and Nitre and leaden Pellets at thy Girdle, and an heavy Gun on thy Shoulder, and this loaden with Violence within and without, to run through thick and thin, over pleasant Plains and craggy Mountains, playing at Bo-peep behind Trees, Bushes and Hedges, like a Thief or Trepan, taking all advantages to betray Innocency, and unsuspectedly let fly the fierce Thunderbolts of Mars, and the Poysons of Saturn, to deprive us of our harmless Lives, to the great Amazement of all the Peaceable Inhabitants of Heaven; and when all is done, the Summ Total of thy Exploit, and all the Trophy and Triumph of thy War-like Expedition, is but this, That with the expence of much precious Time, and enduring more extremity of Toil, Hunger and Cold than perhaps thou wouldst have suffered to save the Life of one of thy wanting Brethren, thou hast treacherously Kill’d a poor Innocent Bird, whose Carkass perhaps will scarce yield thee a Penny, whilst in the mean time and with half this pains, thou mightst at thy own needful and lawful Occupation have gotten to the value of six Pence or a Shilling, and yet oft-times the time, charge and trouble of Dressing this thy unjust Prey, is double the value of it when it is dressed; whereas one Pint of Milk of it self, or conveniently varied, would give thee a much more wholsom and nourishing Meal.

Consider further, what an odd, dishonourable and Beggarly Baseness it seems to be in Gentlemen and those of Estates, who live and spend most part of their time in idle Wantonness, Gluttony and Excess, and whensoever they have a mind to exercise themselves a little, and disperse the thick Fumes of a late Debauch, then out they must go abroad to offer Violence to some of their fellow Creatures: and they that are content to hire lewd and obscene Minstrils, to divert them at their Revels, with a rude scraping on a parcel of Cats-Guts with their clumsey Fingers, are so far from returning us any thanks for that most pure natural and ravishing Musick that we continually afford them gratis, that on the contrary, with the blackest Ingratitude they study our Destruction: And this their Malice they chiefly execute when it is frosty snowy and severe Weather, when the Sun, the Fountain of Light and Comfort is retreated to the remotest Tropick, when the Earth is stript of Fruits and Grains, and lies bedrid and benumb’d under the Bands of sullen Saturn, and the Heavens with-draw their sweet and friendly Influences, then instead of relieving us in our Extreamity, and preserving us from the Rigors of the Season, and of the Elements, they take their opportunity to add to our Miseries and Dangers, and rather than fail to do us a mischief, punish themselves with Wet and Cold, lurking in private Holes to circumvent and murder us; and he is the bravest Fellow that can kill most of us, which serves them to boast of amongst their Drunken Companions in their Riotous Feasts, when they make themselves merry at our being buried in their insatiate Paunches.

But why should we wonder at this Violence and Unnaturalness of depraved men, seeing that they do not scruple to do almost the same to those of their own Species? Nay, we are informed, that in the more Populous Countries, where these Killing Christians live, when there happens a very hard cold frosty Season, there can hardly any little innocent Bird escape their bloody hands, but even the Harmonious Blackbirds, the sweet Quavering Thrushes, and the high soaring Lark (who every Morning sends up a Sacrifice of Melody in the Suburbs of Heaven, and whom all, not stupified into Brutality, are half ravisht to hear, such are their charming Notes) yet all promiscuously go to Pot, and fall Victims to this unparallel’d Barbarity.

And so far as we can perceive, we shall quickly be but in little better Condition, if the Trade of Violence, Killing and Inhumanity be encouraged, as it has been hitherto; for the Europeans and Christians are far more expert in the feats of Arms, and these Murthering Mysteries than our former Masters, the Indians, whom the Christians and others do in contempt call Heathens, Barbarians and Savage Wild People, which indeed is true, and in their Barbarity they do as much Mischief as they can; but they had not where-with to destroy us in any considerable Numbers, neither are they such cunning Artists in the dark Wrath and Devilish Practices of Killing, nor did they attempt us but to satisfie their Hunger; whereas now they are encourag’d to make a Trade of selling our Bodies for Brandy, Rum and strong Liquors, which the Christians give them in Exchange, though the same proves almost as great a Mischief to the Indians as to us, and in the end will prove of as fatal Consequence to the Christians themselves.

For by selling the Indians Guns, Powder, &c. they grow more expert in all kind of Violence, and practise the same not only upon us, but oft-times on one another, and in time, no doubt will attempt the same on those who furnish them with these Mortiferous Tools, as by Experience is found they have done in other places. Besides, the Christians bring them acquainted with the several sorts of pernicious intoxicating strong Drinks, before mentioned, the use of which makes them Mad, and tenfold more Devilish and Inhumane than they were before; for the more savage, wild and bruitish any Man is, both the more fond is he of such strong Liquors, and the more mischievous Effects have they upon him; so that rather than they will be without those abominable Drinks, after once they have tasted them, they will travel night & day with all Pains and Cunning imaginable, to hunt, kill and destroy us, and all other Creatures, not so much (now) for Food, as for the Skins, Feathers or Carkasses to sell, that so they may be able there-with to procure those baneful Drinks; whereas before the Christians Arrival they only were able to kill some few of us, and that too, as it were, for Necessity, for Food, and Skins to cover them in the Winter; but since they hunt Fish, and torment all the innocent Inhabitants of the Elements, so that they cannot have any rest or security; for they will sell the choicest of their Skins & Furs to procure a little Rum or Brandy, or a Gun, Powder, Shot, and the like, which only tend to their own Destruction, as well as ours; for as with the one they take away our sweet Lives, so with the other they ruin their own Healths, contract various Diseases never before heard of amongst them; and besides, put themselves to a World of needless Slavery and Toil to procure to themselves these Mischiefs. And is it not a shame that it should be said, (and too truly) that where the Christians come in new Plantations, they instead of converting, have often debauched the old neighbouring Indians and Heathen-Natives, and rendred many of them worse than they were before?

But still, tell us (if thou canst) O Man! wherefore dost thou thus degrade thy self to become a Setter, a Trepan, a Snare, a Plague and a Torment to all the rest of the Innocent Inhabitants of the four Worlds, wherein yet thou plaguest thy self more than any of them? Has not thy Creator made thee in his own Image, indued thee with divine and human Wisdom, substituted thee Governor and Deputy-Lieuetenant over all, and bountifully enricht thee with a thousand Priviledges and Benefits, which we poor inferior Graduates are denyed? And hast not thou power to command, by Understanding and Art, the lower Animals to serve and labour for thee, as to plough up and till the stubborn Ground (but rendered so by thy Sin) so that it becomes fruitful, and brings thee forth a great number of various sorts of gallant wholsom nutritive Seeds & Grains, which being wisely ordered may make variety of curious Food? Art thou not endued with Strength and Art to manure, cultivate and improve the Earth, also by planting innumerable Fruit-Trees, which will afford not only good Food, but likewise several sorts of delicate and refreshing Drinks? Does not that brave Creature the Cow, pay thee Tribute twice a day, by filling thy Pails with Nectar, which of it self is a sublime Food, and being altered by Care and Art, makes several sorts of excellent Dishes? Doth not the bounteous Earth, out of her ever-Teeming Womb, by Nature and the help of thy Art, present thee with a vast Number of various sorts of beautiful, fragrant and virtuous Plants and Herbs, proper both for Food and Physick? In a word, has not our beneficent and indulgent Creator freely accomodated thee with the Blessings of all the four Worlds, which almost surpass in Number the utmost reach of humane Arithmatick? Has he not appointed the Coelestials to distill continually their sweet Influences upon thee? Dost thou not command the fine soft Wool of that most innocent and useful Creature, the Sheep, to cover the self-contracted Shame of thy Nakedness, and keep thee from the Injuries of the Elements? Art not thou possest of all the stately Woods and noble Trees (wherein we are content to sp[e]nd ourselves and build our Nests) but thou takest liberty to cut them down, not only to supply thee with Fires, but also to furnish thee with many other Conveniences, both of Necessity and Ornament, especially to build thee Houses therewith to secure thy self from pinching Frost, and violent Rains, and offensive Winds, and parching Sunshine; and yet tho’ we are thereby disseized of our antient Freeholds and Habitations, we have never been heard to murmur or repine, who yet enjoy not a thousandth part of these Priviledges and Felicities: We pretend not to command over any of our fellow Creatures, nor have the use of Fire, nor the benefit of Houses; we wear none but our own natural Cloathings, and are continually exposed to all the Injuries of the Elements; neither are we endued with Arts and Sciences, Crafts and Mysteries, whereby to make any Advantages to our selves, so that we have nothing to trust to but only the divine Hand of our Creator; when he gives us a Breakfast, we know not when we shall have a Dinner, nor what it will be; so when we Sup, we know nothing of what Food, or where we shall eat on the Morrow, but wholly rely upon our Maker, who never faileth to comfort and feed us; for a few, and simple mean things sufficiently serve our turns, and relieve our wants, and therefore we need not many; our Desires never wandring beyond the necessities of Nature; our Food is innocent and our Drink simple Water, therefore we are not sick, but live our appoint time in perfect Health.

Wherefore then, O Man! shouldst thou lie in wait to shorten our days, to disturb our Repose and interrupt our Harmony by the hellish Noise of thy Guns, Arms, Snares and Stratagems? Or why dost thou teach thine Off-sping, as soon as they are able to handle a Stone, to fling it at us, as if we were your Enemies? Are not those of our winged kind, that inhabit the most sweet and sublime Element, the Air, more Noble than any of the inferior Creatures, that grovel upon the Earth, or hide themselves in the Waters? And do not all men delight to hear our Melodious Consorts and Musical Notes, filling the Heavens and Earth with our delightful Songs, which we chaunt forth in honour and praise to our Creator, being free from Envy, Strife & Contention, from carking Cares and Vexations, all places being our Home, and we go freely where we please, except when entangled in thy treacherous Gins and Devices, for which there is no pretence or provocation, nor the least colour of Reason why thou shouldst envy our simple innocent Life, seeing we cannot by our Death contribute any thing to thy Happiness, who are already so plentifully stored with the great and gallant Priviledges and Advantages before-mentioned. And, O! what a brave noble wise Creature would Man be, and what Honour and Glory might his Government bring unto his Creator, as well as Comfort and Happiness to himself and all his fellow-Creatures, if he liv’d innocently, and did but as we poor Creatures do, viz. answer that end for which he was made, and do as he would willingly be done unto.

I have heard, that one of the cunningest of our kind, viz. a Jack-Daw, who (like some pretended Christians) loves Churches, more for conveniency and shelter than Worship, having made a Nest in the Steeple, or some part of the House, where a number of them use to meet for performing their publick exercises of Religious Worship, and by means thereof, often hearing a great noise below, was prompted, by curiosity, to enquire the occasion thereof; so listening attentively, he heard the men there met were a reading the Commandments of God, where ’tis said, Thou shalt do no Murder: To which all the People answer’d, Lord incline our hearts to keep this Law. And afterwards they proceeded to read many good Prayers to God to forgive them their Trespasses & Mis-deeds, all their Violences and Abuse of Gods Creatures, &c. Which extreamly rejoyced the poor Bird to hear; so he returned to his fellows, and acquainted every Bird that he met with in the Airial Plains, of these glad Tidings, That MAN, their Tormentor and vigilent Enemy did now repent of the Evil of his Ways, and would now commit no more Murders, nor Acts of Violence on the Innocent. Which was receiv’d with an universal Acclamation of the Volatile Troops, and now with redoubl’d Notes began to sing louder Anthems of Joy and Gratitude for so great a Blessing, which would give a general Peace to the whole Creation. But their Mirth was but short-liv’d; for the very next day this Daw, with some others was abroad seeking for Food, and there comes one of the same Persons whom he had seen so devoutly praying in the Church, and lying in ambush with a long Gun cramb’d with Brimstone and Nitre and murthering Pellets of Lead, as soon as he spy’d his opportunity, let flie at the harmless Birds, and kill’d several of them upon the place, and wounded others; those that escaped acquainted their Fellows what they had seen and suffered, and bid them look to themselves, whatever fair words men might use; for they say, and do not; they pray God would incline their hearts not to commit any Violence, and yet the Profession, the very Trade of Killing is one of the most Honorable Callings amongst them in their esteem: They with their Lips desire the Lord would forgive them their Oppressions and Violences, and in their Hearts resolve upon, and by their Practices continue the same Outrages. Thus vain and depraved Men, through their wanton and extravagant Desires after those things which they need not, nay, which are much more prejudicial than profitable unto them, do draw upon themselves a deluge of Calamities; the more they have, the more they need; for as their Possessions and Enjoyments are enlarged, so continually in proportion are their greedy Desires augmented, like Persons in a Dropsie, coveting after more Drink, because they have ingurg’d too much already; and so through Transgression and Violence that Noble Rational Creature, becomes the most miserable of all Animals, who was made in the beginning not only the Supream, but most Happy, and Wisest of all: And although we are daily subject to all his Snares and Violences, yet still we would not for a thousand Worlds be in some mens condition; for they have made themselves not only subject to a thousand Miseries in this Life, but more specifically in the World to come, which has no end; whereas both our Joy and Sorrow terminates with this Life, and extends not beyond the short horizon of Time: And though we do undergo great inconveniences, and often lose our dear Lives sacrificed to irrational and ungodly Violence, yet let him know, That he himself is and shall be thereby the greatest Sufferer; and therefore we advise him to be careful that he do not awaken the fierce Jaws and ravenous Mouth of the Wrath, for fear he be thereby in the end swallowed up, and there be none to deliver him.

Canst thou, O Man! accuse us for breaking or transgressing Gods pure Law in Nature? Are we guilty of Cheating, Lying or bearing false Witness, of Gluttony, Drunkenness, or taking the adorable Name of our Creator in vain? Have we usurpt upon thy Priviledges, taken away thy Lands, or laid waste thy Houses? Do we not abominate thy Uncleannesses, and observe the proper times of our Couplings? Are not our Males tender and loving, and our Females so chaste that they will not admit she greatest Courtier amongst us to touch them out of their proper Seasons? Are either of us ever jealous of each other? Where canst thou find amongst all the numerous Inhabitants of the four Worlds, so much Abstinence, Love, Constancy and Chastity as in our kind, our Males taking the like care and Industry as the most sober provident well-disposed Man does for the Preservation and Accomodation of his dear Wife and tender Children; for during the time of our hatching and breeding up, they duly take pains to provide and bring home Food for their Females, whilst they sit, and also for their Young Ones after they are brought forth; neither do they visit the Nests of others, but keep close to their first chosen Loves; therefore Anger, Jealousie and Contention (those Thorns which render most of your Down-Beds uneasie) enter not into our unbounded Habitations.

We contend not, nor wrangle about our Pedigrees, nor trouble our Heads about Noble Birth and State; neither have we any Law-suits for Rights, Priviledges, Lands or Inheritances; the whole expanded Ante-Court of Heaven our Creator has given in common amongst us, not limiting us by any Land-marks; the vast and spacious Air is our natural City, whereof we are all born free; nor have we forfeited our Charter: The Composition and Elements of our Bodies are more brisk, lightsom, agile and pleasant than any other Creatures, as coming nearest to the Coelestial Quires than the heavy dull melancholly Earth-creepers, or Phlegmatick Inhabitants of the Ocean; therefore we can remove many Miles in a very few hours, and mount our selves to the lofty Regions, and there behold the wonderful Secrets of our Creator in the generation of Meteors, how soft Vapours are cran’d up by the Suns strong Beams, and condens’d into Clouds, and thence distill’d into Showers, to enable the Earth to afford its Nourishment; how falling Drops being intercepted in their way, congeal into flakes of Snow; and how hot Exhalations imprison’d in surrounding Vapours of a cold and contrary Nature, force their Passage with bright Flashes and terrible Noises, which you call Lightning & Thunder; whilst in the mean time, whilst we survey near hand these Wonders, our fallen Prince (Man) is confin’d to his Earthly Palaces, nuzling like Swine in Dung and Dirt, or rather like Moles, always moiling, yet always blind.

This Active Life, joyn’d with our innocent simple Diet, preserves us from being afflicted with Diseases; Your Agues are as unknown to us as their Causes and Cures are to your Physitians; We have no Feavers, because we never burn with unnatural Lusts, nor Dropsies, because we never drown our Faculties with over-charg’d Bowls; neither are our Joynts crampt with the Great Pox, nor our Skins deform’d with the Small; Our Young Ones are not tortur’d with the Evil or Rickets, nor those of riper Age with Trembling Palsies, Putrifying Scurvies, or any the like cruel Diseases: so that rarely any of our kind dye unnatural Deaths (unless occasioned by the Treachery or Violence of Man) but we are by the goodness of our Creator blessed with Health and long Life, not subject to Distempers, slavish Labours, Cares, or any other Perturbations either of Body or Mind, because we still continue in the constant Observation of that pure innocent Law of God in Nature, in which we were first created, and do still retain those natural Gifts and Self-preservations which we were endued with in the beginning; for the Lord made all Creatures sound and healthful, and now if any are otherwise it as because they have forsaken Gods pure Law, and depraved themselves; the most fatal Instance whereof is Man, who was in his Creation adorn’d with wonderful Gifts and Graces, both divine and humane, and in every respect made more compleat than any other Inhabitants of the material Worlds; but behold now how miserably is he degenerated and shut up in Ignorance, Folly and Blindness, by his stepping out of that innocent Law God had placed him in, and giving way first to the Insinuations, and by degrees to the Tyranny of the fierce violent wrathful poysonous Spirit, which has not only captivated his Soul to all Evil, and exposed his Body to innumerable Diseases, but also enslaved all the vast Multitudes of the four Worlds; for he being our Angel and Governour, therefore we partake in the sad Consequences of his Transgression and Fall, but none so much as himself, because none sinned, nor broke God’s pure Law but himself; for not only those of our kind, but all others (except Men) do still retain that truly Noble and universal Language which our Creator endued us with in the beginning; and though carried or voluntarily flying into remote Climates, many hundred Miles distant, can as intelligibly understand those of our own kind, as nearer home where we were bred; but it is not so with our Prince (Man) for if he travels but four or five hundred Miles, or shifts three or four Degrees of Latitude, he must have an Interpreter, or else he can no more comprehend the Language of those of his own Species than he can do ours; And yet what a clutter does he make about Languages and Scholarship, spending the prime part of his Life (which ought to be entirely imployed in the Study of Nature and Wisdom) in learning a few Canting words, of the Basis and true Root whereof he knows nothing; whereas we need no tyrannical Schoolmaster to lash us into the knowledge of Grammer, or teach us the use of Letters, since we can by our Natural Tones communicate whatsoever is needful for the Relief or Preservation of each other, still varying that Tone according to our Necessities.

Do not therefore boast, O Man! nor grow proud of thy great Knowledge and Parts, nor usurp to thy self a License to oppress and domineer over both the weaker of thine own kind, and all other innocent Inhabitants of Air, Earth and Sea: From whence didst thou derive thy Authority for killing thy Inferiors, meerly because they are such, or for destroying their Natural Rights and Privileges? Is it not from thy Fall? Has not Transgression been the occasion thereof? And is it not the Effects of the fierce Wrath, where every form hath its motion and operation in Discord; And hast not thou by adhearing thereunto, and being govern’d by the Serpentine Nature, attracted unto thy self a thousand Evils and Calamities? For what inferior Creature in the World is afflicted with so many Diseases of Body and Perturbatios of Mind as thou art? Also, art not thou the most helpless and forlorn Creature of the Universe, and more subject than any of us to receive Impressions from the Injuries of the Elements? For art not thou beholding to the inferior Graduates for thy Cloathing, and a great part of thy Food? And art thou not continually assaulted with inward and outward Enemies? with perpetual Plagues of Suspitions, Fears, Jealousies and unsatisfied Desires? And dost not thou fear those of thy own kind more than all the fierce Savages of the Deserts?

What Authority dost thou retain over the Elements? or what favour or kindness will they shew unto thee, more than to us poor Inferior? When once they get the Mastery, will not the Water drown thee, the Fire burn thee, and the Earth swallow thee up? Nor hast thou any more command of the Air; How hast thou lost those spacious Dominions the Creator invested thee with in the beginning? Examine thy self, O thou Two-Leg’d unfeather’d unthinking Thing! What canst thou truly boast of now, according to thy common way of Living, more than we? A Crane hath a longer swallow, and therefore ’tis like takes more delight in receiving its Food and Drink; and yet many of you make the pleasure of your Throats your business, I may almost say, your godd: The Eagle can vastly out-see you, the Vultur out-smell you, every one of us hear more nimbly; for Chastity, our Turtles vvye with the very best of you; for Paternal Affections towards their Young, our Pelican exceeds you, and for returning Love towards helpless Parents, our Storks may shame you. Dare any of your Songsters, Musick-Masters, Choristers or Organ-Players compare with the ravishing Notes of a Morning Lark or an Evening Nightingale? What more certain Knowledge have you of the Times, or the changing of Seasons, or any the like secret Operations of Gods Power in the internal & external Nature? Are not thy Astrological Predictions generally false, and thy Prognostications of the Weather scarce so significant or certain as the Chattering of our Magpies, or the Screaking of a Peacock? Are not all thy methods of Physick as fallible? And dost thou not venture blindfold at these things, by Guess and Chance?

Consider therefore, O Man! that thou art the unhappiest of all Gods Creatures, and that thou dost excel all others in Cruelty; for if thou hadst thy Will, thou wouldst hardly leave one of our innocent kind alive to sing forth the Praises of our Creator, and to wellcome in the great Eye of the World, and the delightful Spring, at whose Approach all things rejoyce, and chaunt forth Hyms and Praise to the Creator, every thing according to its kind and nature (Man only excepted) whose Teeth are imbrew’d in Blood, which will not be for his good, but hath thereby broken the holy Commandments of his Creator, as the Scriptures of Truth do testifie, I will, saith the Lord, cut off that Soul from the Land of the Living that defileth himself with Blood. Consider also, O Man! how unpleasing, dollerous and frightful would it be to thee in the pleasant Moneths of March, April and May, when thous walkest in the delightful Fields, if thou shouldst not hear the pleasant and refreshing Charms of those of our kind, would thou not fear, say and think, that the Creator was angry, and that some Judgment was near at hand? Why then dost thou thus endeavour to bring all our joyful Tones, Notes, Sounds and melodious Harmonies into Mourning and Silence, and to root us from off the Earth, and that we should have no Beeing or Habitation in the Elements, which are as much our Right by Elohim’s great Charter as they are thine. Also, how Monsterous, Cruel, yea, and every way Ridiculous doth Man behave himself to all those of our kind? for though many do not, cannot delight themselves with the best Instrumental Harmony those of their own Species can make, yet all men love and delight in our pleasant Tunes and Harmonies; and yet neither our Innocency nor our Ravishing Notes will appease his Fury towards us, but many of them in the hard and severe Winter will rise betimes, and spare no pains to kill us, and on the other side, when Spring comes, the very same men will rise as early to walk in the open Fields, Groves and Meadows to hear our Melodious Songs and pleasant Harmonies. Oh! manifest unparalleled Contradiction and Cruelty! Doess this look like Man in his innocent estate, who was made but little inferior to Angels, and an Associate with God himself, who endued him with both divine and human Wsdom? Alas! No.

Leave off then, O Man! for shame leave off thy Pride, and thy vain Glory, and boast no more of thy Knowledge, and Dominion, and Authority; for in truth thou art poor, and blind, and weak, and helpless, and miserably ignorant; sink down therefore into Humility, and cease from Cruelty, first against those of thine own kind, and then thou mayst come to see and abhor the Error of oppressing thy Inferiors; for this is the way to retrieve thine Honour and Dignity, to bring back the Golden Age, and that Innocent Estate, which by oppression, cruelty and violence thou hast lost; for Mercy, Innocence and Well-doing are well-pleasing to our Creator, and agreeable to the noble divine Principle, and attract the sweet Influence of the Coelestials, so that the Merciful, and the Peace-Makers and Peace-Preservers shall be filled with all good things; for as Man was created after the Image of God, so in him are contained the true Nature and Properties of all Elements; and since God is both the Maker and Preserver of all Creatures, there is no doubt but Man (his Vice-Gerent here below) ought to imitate his Soveraigne therein; but instead thereof he sets himself to destroy nor only those of his own kind, but also all other Creatures; so that through Sin and Vanity he is become a professed Enemy to all the Host of Heaven. How many thousands of our innocent kind have been murthered by Guns, Traps, Snares, &c.? and many thousands both of our Males and Females have lost their loving Mates by the like Stratagems, and no Pity of Compassion taken by Man on our miserable Sufferings, but rather they encourage each other to our destruction, and cry, Hang these scurvey Birds, shoot them, destroy them, they are good for nothing but to eat up our Corn: As if God that created us had done it in vain, as if he intended us not a subsistance and Food? What right I pray, has Man to all the Corn in the world? or why should he grumble and repie if we take a few Grains to supply our Necessities, whilst he squanders away such Heaps upon his Lusts?

Wherein I fear he has so much besotted himself, and by continual Practice is become so harden’d, and has so powerfully irritated the dark Wrath in himself, that all our Remonstrances to him to move him to Mercy and Compassion, and to forbear polluting himself with the Blood of the Innocent, will be but in vain, and that we must still sigh and groan under his Cruelty and Tyranny, which at long-run will return seven fold upon his own guilty Head.


The B---ds Supplication.

Oh, Thou Great and Immortal Creator! Cause of Causes, Fountain of Beeing, God of Nature, Author, Preserver and Upholder of this glorious Universe, Parent of Angels and Men, and all other Animals inhabiting the vast Deeps, or the spacious Earth, or the unbounded Air, Thou hast given a Well-beeing and Self-Preservation unto all thy Creatures; but Man, whom thou hast made our Lord, having cast off all Affection towards us, disobeying thy holy Commands, has plunged himself into the Fountain of fierce Wrath, and therefore above all things desires and delights in Violence and Killing; for nothing will satisfie the hungery Wrath but Slaughter and Blood, (for every thing must be maintained by its Likeness) so that his Rage is now grown so active, that we have no place that can secure us from his Violence, but he continually pursues, seeking to take away our innocent Lives. The ungrateful and terrible Noise of his Guns drowns our sweet Melody; the whole Air is infected with the stinking Fumes of his murthering Powder; no place is free from his Ambushes, Nets, Gins, Pitfalls and Snares, so that the sight of a Man is become most dreadful and terrible unto us, whereby our Lives being always in danger and fears, are made grievous unto us: Every Noise we hear we are afraid our fierce Hunter is near; And tho’ we cry and make our mournful Complaints, no Mortals will hear us or take pity on us, but divert themselves with our Death, and laugh and sport at our Destruction. So that we have no Friend, no Patron on Earth to help or commiserate our miserable estate, and rescue us from their Treachery and Cruelty; none to fly unto but thee, O holy Fountain of Light & Life, to whom we send our dolorous Cries and mournful Complaints; for we proceeded from thee, and thou art the Lord our Maker; preserve us, thy poor Creatures in that natural Liberty and Safety wherein thou hast placed us; restrain the hands of Violence, inspire all the profess thy Name with the Spirit of Meekness, Tederness, Mercy and Compassion both towards each other, and all thy Creation, that their Swords may be turned into Pruning-Hooks, their frightful Guns into Instruments of Melody, and there may be no morre Fighting, Wounding or Killing in all thine holy Mountain.   Amen.

F I N I S.


There is lately publish’t by the Author of the Country-Man’s Companions, a Treatise entituled, The Way to Health, long Life and Happiness, or a Discourse of Temperance, and the particular Nature of all things requisit for the Life of Man. Wherein is contained, 1. A Description of the four grand Qualities, and how every man may know his own Complexion, whether Chollerick, Sanguine, Phlegmatick or Melancholly, and what Diseases they are most subject to; also what food is most agreeable to Persons of every Constitution. 2. Of the excellency of Temperance, and the Benefits of Abstinence and Sobriety. 3. A Discourse of the several sorts of Beasts, and of their Flesh in particular. 4. The Proper and most Natural way of preparing, viz. Boyling, Roasting, Baking, Stewing, Frying and Broyling of Flesh and other Food. 5. The Seasons of the year in which most People are liable to Diseases and Mortality, and the Reasons thereof, and what Food is best to preserve Health at that time; Shewing also the Seasons of the year in which most sorts of Flesh are unclean and aptest to contract Diseases; and what times men may eat Flech with least danger to their Health. And of the Nature of Summer Fruits. 6. Of Waters, Ale, Beer, and Tobacco; also of Clothing, Houses and Beds, and what great Benefits arise from Moderation and Temperance in those things. 7. Of each particular Trade, as Shop-keepers, Carpenters, Joyners, Sea-men, &c. 8. Of Herbs, Fruits & Grains, and the nature and operation of each. [9]. The Mischief of Variety of Meats and Drinks, and the inconveniences of improper Mixtures; and on the other side, what Foods are fit to be compounded. Of Colours, and how, with seven perfect Colours, to imitate and represent all the Appearances and Colours in the whole Universe. 10. The Reasons in Nature why Cities and great Towns are subject to the Pestilence and other Diseases more than Country-Villages. 11. Of Infection or Catching-Diseases, and how they are transferred from one to another. 12. Of Women, their Natures, Complexions and Intemperances, &c. 13. The cause of Surfeits, and how to prevent them, and keep the Body in Health: The danger of drinking after superfluous Meals. And what it is that chiefly breeds the Scurvey in the Blood. Of Suppers, and what sort of People may use them without prejudice to their Health. 14. Of Windy Diseases, the Reasons thereof, and why English People, especially Women, are so much troubled there-with. The Evils of eating & drinking Food too hot. And Mischief of eating and drinking between Meals. Of Fatness, and what sort of People are subject thereto, as also how to prevent it. 15. Of Bugs, and from what Matter they do proceed, and how to prevent their Generation. 16. The Vermin-killer, being several easie sure Receipts to destroy Vermin. 17. A short Discourse of the Pain of the Teeth, shewing from what cause it does chiefly proceed, and an experienced easie way to prevent it. 18. How to cure all Cuts, Wounds, Bruises, &c. without Salves, Oyntments or Plaisters. 19. Of Marriage, and the Inconveniences of unequal Matches; that they make no Harmony, and the Evil consequences that follow, more especially for Young Men. With several other most useful Observations, too large here to be enumerated; convenient for all that are Lovers of Health and Strength to observe. To which is added, A Treatise of most sorts of English Herbs, either Physical or fit for common use; shewing, 1st, The apt times to gather them Astrologically, when the Planet that governs them is strong and well aspected, the same being there calculated for 19 Years: 2dly, How to preserve and keep them without losing their Virtues: And 3dly, The best way of using them in Posset-Drinks, Decoctions and Cordials, so as not to destroy the pure spiritous of them. Printed and Sold by Andrew Sowle, at the Crooked Billet in Holloway-Lane, Shoreditch.

ornament (hand, writing with quill)

N O T E :  An Editor’s Introduction is available for this Roses​.Communicating​By​Design​.com e-publication. Designed to open in a small, floating second window, it provides background context for and critical commentary on Tryon’s The Planter's Speech to his Neighbours & Country-Men of Pennsylvania, East & West-Jersey .... Illustrated, with an annotated list of works cited.
   For further discussion of Tryon’s early contribution to the gun-control debate in America, see our What’s Blooming news page (entry dated 5/9/2014).


facsimile of late-17th-century title-page

^  Facsimile of title-page for Thomas Tryon’s The planter’s speech to his neighbours & country-men of Pennsylvania, East & West-Jersey, and to all such as have transported themselves into new-colonies for the sake of a quiet retired life. To which is added, the complaints of our supra-inferior-inhabitants. London: Printed and sold by Andrew Sowle in Shoreditch, 1684.
     The original publication has irregular pagination, errors in section numbering, and inconsistencies in orthography, but surprisingly few substantive errors affecting content, the one erratum I am unable to resolve being “Annixities,” which is either a typo or so idiosyncratic a spelling (even by 17th-century standards) that it obscures meaning. I interpret the word (see above) as an aberrant spelling of “anxieties,” but am not certain about this.
     What I am calling Part 2 of Tryon’s The Planter’s Speech to his Neighbours & Country-Men of Pennsylvania, East & West-Jersey ... is in the original identified as “CHAP. V” (see above), a hold-over from its earlier publication as chapter 5 in Tryon’s The Country-Man’s Companion (see below).
     Both The Planter’s Speech and The Country-Man’s Companion closed with a bookseller’s advertisement (see above) for Tryon’s best-selling The Way to Health, Long Life, and Happiness ... (1st edn., 1683).

facsimile of late-17th-century title-page

^  Facsimile of title-page for Thomas Tryon’s The country-man’s companion: or, A new method of ordering horses & sheep so as to preserve them both from diseases and causalties, or, to recover them if fallen ill, and also to render them much more serviceable and useful to their owners, than has yet been discovered, known or practised. And particularly to preserve sheep from that monsterous, mortifying distemper, the rot. By Philotheos Physiologus, the author of The way to health, long life and happiness, &c. London: Printed and sold by Andrew Sowle, at the Crooked-Billet in Holloway-Court in Holloway-Lane, near Shoreditch, [1684].
     “The Planter’s Speech to his Neighbours & Country-Men of Pennsylvania, East and West-Jersey, &c. and to all such as have Transported themselves into New-Colonies for the sake of a quiet Life” was first printed here as Chapter 4; “The Complaints of the Birds and Fowls of Heaven to their Creator, for the Oppressions and Violences most Nations on the Earth do offer unto them, particularly the People called Christians, lately settled in several Provinces in America” followed immediately as Chapter 5. The work was popular enough to be reissued without changes in 1688, in addition to the stand-alone reprinting of chapters 4 and 5 in 1684 as The Planter’s Speech ....
     Such works as these were the forerunner of the 20th-century paperback: printed at smaller sizes, as cheaply as possible, to ensure that they were affordable to middle-class audiences. Most of the extant copies are well-worn from lots of use by readers — as the author intended! — resulting in imperfect rare books for 21st-century readers: pages in Tryon’s books are occasionally torn and/or stained, with loss of print in places, plus print faded and print show-through in others (as evident on this title-page).
     Tryon’s The Country-Man’s Companion, a book of about 200 pages, was priced at 1 shilling, as was his popular advice-book for women, The Good Houswife Made a Doctor (1st edn., 1685).

     ornament (quill, at rest in inkpot)

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